Uganda visits Rwanda

Cross posted on our Mirembe Kawomera “Delicious Peace” Blog

Every once in a while we get to see history in the making. It’s one of the most exciting parts of our work, and the fact that we get to enjoy seeing it happen makes it all that much more sweet.

Last week, one of those incredible moments came to pass. A delegation of two farmers from our partner cooperative in Uganda visited our partner cooperative in Rwanda. Muhammed Kakaire Hatibu and Elias Hasalube made the two day-long trip overland from the Peace Kawomera Cooperative in Eastern Uganda to visit our partners at the Dukunde Kawa Cooperative, high in the mountains of northern Rwanda.


The trip was a chance for the leadership of Peace Kawomera to study the operation of Dukunde Kawa’s world-class central washing station, and to share their knowledge of organic farming practices with their compatriots in Rwanda.


Beginning over three years ago, Peace Kawomera embarked on a process to completely change the way they processed coffee: instead of each of the cooperative’s farmers picking, depulping, fermenting, washing, and drying on their own farms, the cooperative would build a central washing station where farmers would bring freshly harvested ripe cherries to be processed in daily lots.


The advantages of this more centralized processing are many: quality, for one, is much easier to achieve as the intricacies of the production process can be fine-tuned, controlled, and replicated. Lots can be processed separately, and evaluated before being aggregated, which makes it possible to trace back problems and keep them from bringing great quality down. Experiments can be conducted, and the many variables of production can be fine-tuned. There are also real environmental benefits as the sugar-contaminated water that’s a by-product of the processing can be centralized and treated more thoroughly. Then there are the economic advantages, which come from the efficiencies achieved through scale in the production process. All told, the central washing station provides a strategy to improve quality, reduce pollution, and increase farmer incomes.


There are of course, many challenges. Number one, there’s the cost of the washing station. Number two, there’s the necessary proper management and operation. The cost issue is major, but thanks to our innovative profit-sharing partnership with the cooperative, we’ve been able to channel over $100,000 (albeit slowly, in small increments) to the cooperative. These funds enabled the purchase of land, building materials, and labor to get the project off the ground. The washing station’s completion will be supported in large part thanks to a US Agency for International Development grant/loan package that’s nearly completed.


Which leaves us with the last remaining challenge: how do you run this thing? Policies need to be established, standards need to be set, staff needs to be hired and trained….farmers need to be convinced that they should sell ripe cherry instead of dried beans. Incentivized strategies need to be developed. Where do you start?


Well, if you’re in Uganda, you might as well go ask your neighbor for a little help. Turns out the farmers in Rwanda are about 6 years into a very successful experience running washing stations built to confront the same challenges and produce the same results. So, off they went…farmer to farmer, teaching, learning, sharing experiences and support.


I’m waiting for some photos of the exchange, and look forward to sharing them with you on this blog soon. Thanks to each of you who’ve contributed to this project through your purchase of our Mirembe Kawomera “Delicious Peace” Coffee. I look forward to sharing even sweeter coffee with you soon!




We Are The Lucky Ones

It’s hard to explain how lucky I feel to be in the coffee business. It’s not always like this—often times the dark cloud of spreadsheets, uncupped samples, missed deadlines and customer service overshadows the joy of this work, but then there are moments of clarity. For me, it’s often late in the afternoon after a long day of work with a cooperative, pushing ahead on a quality improvement project or the successful negotiation of a contract for this year’s coffee.

But there are many other moments as well. Getting a call or a card from a customer who is so happy with our coffee that they went way out of their way to tell us about it. The time my friend Rio, who grew up down the street from me, came over and told me that the Sidama Natural was his favorite coffee ever. That he didn’t know coffee could be so sweet and complex. That he looked forward to it every morning. And that he had heard that I’d found it on one of my trips to East Africa, and gone all the way into the mountains to meet the farmers who grow it! That’s cool.


And I just had another one—a chance meeting with a great organization doing amazing work in Rwanda. They are called Project Akilah, and if you’re in Tampa, Florida, you should definitely attend their event tomorrow night.


Check out Project Akilah’s website to learn more about their work to support the next generation of Rwandans—young women specifically—who have grown up in the shadow of the genocide, yet are moving forward, thanks to the support or remarkable people like Elizabeth and her team at Project Akilah. It often times feels like a contradiction, but if you ever want an affirmation that human beings are good, go to Rwanda. And when you go, make time to see the majestic gorillas. But also make time to visit the farmers we work with, and the school that Project Akilah built.


We’re honored that our coffee will be part of the event, and encourage any of you who haven’t, to taste one of the world’s best coffees.  



“Shade Grown”

Banana Shading coffee Shade is good when it comes to coffee because the coffee tree is a shade loving, evergreen  deciduous, tree whose leaves are too tender for direct sunshine.  But they do need light to grow and thrive. In the sub tropical rain forests where most coffee grows, all the trees in the forest reach for the sun and left unchecked, the taller trees will completely block out the light needed for those coffee trees. Things grow fast in the tropics so shade management is an integral part of the coffee farm work load.

There are many quality levels of shade as one could imagine. It is really great to  wander  through a coffee farm shaded by old growth  Mahogany  and Rosewood trees that are ancient and massive, needing no more then two to four to shade an entire acre (400 coffee trees).  That kind of coffee farming must come from a deep respect for the land and a long , continuous relationship to it over many generations, otherwise those incredibly old trees would have been cut down long ago. Gives me goose bumps just thinking about that Jaguar stalking me as I wandered off the path to touch one of those monster survivors.

Then there are farms that have no ancient forest on their land so they plant bananas for shade and maybe a local species of nitrogen fixing leguminous tree to rise above the Banana Trees. Here are two types of shade to give you a visual understanding of what I have described. The first picture shows how  compatible  the coffee and Banana Trees are together. Shaded by the wide fronds the coffee tree at  bottom center is a deep dark green, indicating adequate nitrogen in the soil and a healthy and hardy tree.  Coffee shaded by Banana Trees        The next picture shows a very different kind of shade  application, one that will support a much greater biodiversity . In the  foreground, the coffee trees are under Inga  trees which have obviously been planted to provide shade for the coffee trees. You can tell by their even spacing. In the background lies the undisturbed forest .  img_21784

Shade is good for ecological reasons too. Tropical rains are intense. Tree roots hold topsoil and stabilize mountain sides. The over story absorbs the full force of the rain and softens the impact of torrential rains.
Shade produces “leaf litter” that decomposes on the ground providing nutrients to the soil. Shade provides homes for migratory song birds, monkeys, and a host of species that derive their  sustenance  from the e land also. And the birds take care of the insects so less pesticide use results. It is good to know that coffee is the perfect forest cash crop. There is no need to clear land , just the need to manage the shade that is already there . Most encouraging is when farmers start restoring their forest  And that is what we encourage when we shop for coffee with shade grown on our mind (and yours).

One of my favorite shade-grown coffees right now is our SongBird Costa Rican Coffee.  It is sweet with nice caramel notes with a soft finish.

Another one of my favorites is our Songbird Guatemalan coffee , same sweet notes but a bit more bright and lively in the cup.

Paul Katzeff

Fair Trade Retail Prices : How they are derived

Fair Trade Retail Pricing

Posted: 06 May 2009 02:11 PM PDT

I recently received this question from a coffee lover in Oakland California.      



“A friend recently commented that “fair trade” growers are still underpaid, with growers paid less than a dollar a pound for a product that retails for $12.   of course there are many cost involved in getting product to people, but can you confirm or comment on the compensation for Fair trade coffee? “

My reply :

Dear Nancy,      Your friend is correct if you want to compare coffee farmers in Peru with a coffee farmer in Hawaii(USA) . Hawiian coffee costs $14.00 a pound green in 100 lb sacks. Why ? Because the Hawaii  farmer is paid at least minimum wage ($ 7.50/hour.) So you , the consumer will pay $24.00 per pound in the grocery. The Fair Trade Peruvian Farmer sells his coffee to a his producer cooperative of which he is a member with one vote. The coop gets  about $2.00 per pound for its certified organic coffee from roasters in the USA . The coop keeps about .50 cents (it varies from co-op to co-op) so the farmer is getting $1.50 per pound. That is hard to translate into wages per hour but it is allot less then the Hawiian coffee farmer. You can tell because one is poor and the other is middle class. One has electricity and a life in the fast lane, the other has a horse and a quiet village with only a small school and a church.  However, Fair Trade farmers are not as vulnerable as their brothers and sisters who are not co-op members. There is strength in numbers and there is commeraderie as well. Coops build their communities socially and economically so they are a further benefit to people and communities. Only cooperatives can be certified to be Fair Trade sellers. Individuals and Plantations are not eligable for the Fair Trade Certification.

As for the economics of coffee. Here is how it works on a per pound basis :.

$2.00……….Green Coffee

     .50 ……..20% shrinkage in roasting

     .50……… roasting costs for gas and labor  

   1.00………Packaging materials and production labor

   3.50 …….operating expenses (for the coffee roaster/distributor)

       .50 ……gross profit to roaster before taxes

   $7.50 wholesale price

   3.50     retailers gross profit

$ 10.99 shelf price.

The Fair Trade price is set at $1.51 per pound FOB country of origin. This is the lowest price one can offer for Organic Fair Trade coffee.  Most often, a premium above the FT minimum is paid for quality so the price is often about $2.00 per pound. The price is paid to the cooperative , not the individual farmer. The farmer gets a percentage of that price depending on how well the cooperative is run, what social benefit programs they sponsor, and how good their financial situation is. In reality, this persntage averages around 70 % . The cooperatives organizational structure and their financial records are monitored yearly by The Fair Trade Labeling  Organization  (FLO) and cooperatives that do not meet open and transparent standards are “decertified” . This is obviously a major simplification so for a greater ,in depth look at Fair Trade you can check out


One of my favorite Fair Trade Coffees comes from our partner in Rwanda , the Dukunde Kawa Cooperative. Their coffee has been described as “delicious” by some and having hints of dark cherry and chocolate by others. I enjoy it because it makes my mouth water, and has a  beautifully  round acidity that is mellow and soft .  

Paul Katzeff

Salt Sellers in the Market                     SALT SELLERS IN THE MARKET ; RWANDA 2007

2 Zakies of Great Coffee



2 zakies of great coffee, carefully protected by secret coffeeman code.

2 zakies of great coffee, carefully protected by secret coffeeman code.

We got a long-awaited package in the mail a few days ago, from Amsterdam. Labeled “2 zakies groene koffie bonen” (and although I don’t speak dutch) this was no mystery: this was the much anticipated, occasionally fretted over, often nagged at pre-shipment sample of this year’s Sidama Natural from the Hache Cooperative, part of the Sidama Farmers Cooperative Union.



This is a coffee I fell in love with last year during my first trip to Ethiopia. I actually fell in love with it from across the room at first (smell) sight. I was cupping a selection of the best washed coffees of the year and the next table over samples of the washed sun-dried naturals were being prepared…suddenly, deep in my cuppers trance, I smelled sweet sweet strawberry. I stopped, interrupted everyone else, and made a fool of myself hopping around on my two overcaffeinated feet asking about that sweet smelling coffee that had just been ground. Later, after I’d settled down, had an amazing lunch of Injera and Doro Wat (Ethiopian food is as great as their coffee, if you ask me), I found the same coffee, this time hidden as sample number 17 or whatever it was.


We bought a whole container of it, and over the past year it’s become a stand-out favorite among staff, long-time customers, and new friends alike. It’s the backbone of our espresso, and a couple other signature blends. Its jammy sweetness, deep heavy body, and sweet berry aroma are unique. These flavors are the result of a graceful coincidence of dozens of critical variables, and hundreds of other weighty factors as well. Ripe, sweet cherries produced by antique coffee varietals, slowly ripened thanks to high altitude, the gentle stress of good contrasting diurnal temperatures, just the right amount of rain to encourage the coffee to blossom and then a dry period long enough to encourage good pollination, followed by enough rain to allow the coffee trees to produce full, juicy fruit…and that’s all before the coffee has even been picked!


After that it’s selection, and careful drying on raised bends with plenty of airflow and a drying period long enough to allow for some sweet wine-like flavors to emerge through light fermentation, but not so long that sour or dry flavors develop. There is certainly a lot of science going on here, but its at least as much if not more art…and the result last year was thrilling. This year it is too!


The pre-shipment sample shows that same unique jammy strawberry character. It’s becoming clear that this is the hallmark of natural coffees from Sidama, as contrasted with the distinctive blueberry sweetness of natural coffees from Harrar. Only in Ethiopia, with such elegant and intense coffees, could we get away with waxing this poetic on coffee from specific micro-climates and appellations. But it’s there, in the cup, I’m sure a lot of you have tasted these flavors yourselves. In addition to that syrupy strawberry, there are a host of flavors in this year’s Hache much more characteristic of the washed coffees from Sidama: sweet citrus pith, and heavy jasmine blossom perfume-like elegance. At a darker roast, these flavors will hold and convert to heavy chocolate notes. At a lighter roast, the acidity will shed light on the full dimension of this coffee’s character.


What changed this year is a question burning a small hole in my head at the moment. I’ve already sent out a blitzkrieg of emails, and started comparing plane tickets on Ethiopian Airlines versus KLM. I’m thrilled, and pleasantly surprised. The farmers are happy. And I can’t wait to share this coffee with you. Last year’s Hache is still standing up nicely; if you want to get a final taste of it order soon. And stay tuned for notice of this coffees arrival sometime towards the end of June.  


“The Life After”

For those of you who have been following the story of Rwanda, our work there, and the intersection of horror and hope, the May 4 edition of the New Yorker has another important report from Philip Gourevitch. Gourevitch is the author of “We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families” which remains the most comprehensive human chronology and analysis of the 1994 genocide. He returned to Rwanda in April 15 years after the genocide. His report sheds light on the remarkable recovery there, and also the fragile peace, and reminds us that we owe a debt to humanity and to these remarkable people who are living in the shadow of history, still seeking the dawn of a peaceful future.

You can read a synopsis on the New Yorker’s website.

 I of course would encourage you to explore the story of the 2,000 farmers of the Dukunde Kawa Cooperative, who are living this story day in and day out. They are remarkable people, farmers, teachers, mothers and fathers, and producers of some of the finest coffees in the world.

For further reading, I would also suggest Gourevitch’s book, Stephen Kinzer’s “A Thousand Hills” and Mahmood Mamdani’s “When the Victims Become the Killers”.


New crop Nics

It was a big day in the cupping lab. Starting with a sample roasting session that went well after dark the night before (I got started a bit late thanks to a fan belt breaking on the company rig coming over the coastal range from San Francisco—that’s another, not so fun story) and picking up at 8am I had a chance to sort through, taste, and ponder this year’s crop from Cooperativa Solidaridad, in Aranjuez, Nicaragua. The exciting (and labor intensive) part of this cupping is that each of the cooperative’s farmers processes their coffee on-farm, and then keeps their beans separate all the way through to shipping. This enables us to explore the variety of flavors being produced by different farmers spread out over a mountainous area of about 30 square miles high in northern Nicaragua.

I came to work with my game face on (and a hearty bowl of oatmeal in my belly) and settled into a final check of the coffee roasts. Roasting each of the 100gram samples identically is critical; any difference in roast profile, time, or color will impart a variability that makes it impossible to compare one coffee to the other, which is the simple (and challenging) goal of this exercise. I spent about 5 hours yesterday roasting, checking, and re-roasting the samples. It’s an exhausting and enthralling task. There is a rhythm to the process, and pretty soon you find yourself immersed in a world of steam, smoke, flame, and smell. The end result, double and triple checked this morning, was 15 samples identically roasted, and ready to be scored and ranked.

I have to do this blind, otherwise I start to think about the farmers. I know these people, and have spent time on their farms taking shelter from a rainstorm, eating a delicious meal of chicken soup and potatoes all raised within 50 feet of their kitchen, or underneath the shade of their trees talking about coffee, farming, and their cooperative. They are friends, teachers, and partners, and I can’t help but think of them when I taste their coffee. Knowing that tasting with this kind of relationship is quickly an emotional experience, the first thing I do when the coffees arrive is number them, and tear off the tags identifying farmer, quantity, etc. Quite the scientist, I know…

Then there’s the moment of truth: small 10gram samples are scooped out, and ground. Water is boiled. The perfume of sweet fresh coffee fills the room. And the hints of Aranjuez begin to float around too…I move from sample to sample, spinning the rotating table underneath me smelling sweet maple syrup in some, deeply carmelized butterscotch in others, yellow raisins, and lightly toasted cashews. I pour equal amounts of freshly boiled water, and smell again. The aromas intensify. It’s almost as if the coffee blossoms.   A timer sounds. 5 minutes is up. I break the cap, smell deeply, and clean away the wet grounds. Spoonful by spoonful I taste the coffees. Bright and lively they score well on acidity. Most are fantastic. A few really jump out. They are round, deeply toned with the clean characteristic sugary maple syrup-caramel that is the hallmark of these coffees. A number of the best blossom in the cup: their taste begins sweetly and with a lively citric acidity, a new dimension of flavor opens a second later (deep maple syrup rich sweetness) and a full buttery richness envelopes your palate. The flavor fades gracefully, and exits leaving a sweetly toned cacao bitterness. Damn, that’s good coffee!




More than half score over 90 on a scale of 100. That’s a full step up from previous years. The farmers’ hard work and our shared investment in the future of coffee is paying off.

We’ll load two shipping containers, the first with the 90-plus coffees. These will head for single origins, and our espresso blends. The balance will add a deep sweetness to our dark roasts. While the coffee heads north from Nicaragua, copies of my scoring sheet will head south. Benjamin Rivera, the Cooperative’s quality control officer and I will confer on the scores, and he’ll visit the farmers one by one to share the results. Where coffees are great, we’ll try to replicate the farmer’s craft at his or her neighbors. Where the coffees need help, we’ll dig in to identify and fix the problems. Already these coffees are great…they get better each year, and I’m looking forward to sharing the new crop Nicaraguans with you soon—you can find them in our new single origin “Joya de Aranjuez” 12oz. package.


Holly Says Goodbye, Jenais Says Hi

Dear Friends,

It is with mixed emotions that I write to formally announce that I will be leaving my position with Thanksgiving Coffee Company. Some of you may know from following my adventures in Uganda that I’ve had a long-standing interest in medicine and serving the under represented. Within this context, I am ecstatic to announce that I will be attending the VA Commonwealth University’s Accelerated Master’s Degree Program in Nursing to become a Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner. Within my joy, however, is a deep sorrow at having to move on from a most inspiring line of work. It has been an honor and privilege to share the dream and work for peace, social justice, and sustainable economic development with you.

I am pleased to introduce Jenais Zarlin as the new Mirembe Kawomera Project Director. The following are a few words from her:

“I am excited to be joining the Thanksgiving team in a capacity that uniquely combines my passion and professional experience: social justice and food systems. Holly has worked diligently to share the inspiring story of the Mirembe Kawomera cooperative and her efforts have resulted in a strong community committed to spreading peace through tolerance. She leaves big shoes to fill, but I look forward to getting to know all of you and to continue sharing this message of peace and poverty alleviation together. ”

I’m sincerely grateful for the last four years I have worked with you. I’ve learned more about coffee, true friendship, and what can happen when a network of dedicated people harness their power throughout the world for something important- change; and for this I am indebted. I have confidence that Jenais will serve you and the farmers in magnificent ways and take the Mirembe Kawomera Coffee project to new heights.

With utmost appreciation,

Holly Moskowitz

Please feel free to stay in touch. I can be reached at and on Facebook.

Cupping Ethiopian Coffees


"Natural" drying method in Ethiopia (photo credit: Menno "the Dutchman")

About two weeks ago Ben  came back from Uganda and Rwanda after visits with the coffee  cooperatives we are working with . You can read his blog entry to learn what he does when he makes the long voyage to Africa twice each year, and why such visits are so central to the way Thanksgiving Coffee does business. In fact, the way we “source ” our coffees is the defining difference between Thanksgiving Coffee Company and all other specialty coffee companies in the USA.  On his way home  Ben stopped in Amsterdam to visit with our Ethiopian Coffee intermediary and exporter at his office which happens to be less then 500 feet from where the first coffee exchange was set up over 500 years ago.  There is a great book about the way coffee and coffee tree seeds were smuggled out of Yemen in the late 1490’s by a  Portuguese  Jewish man( who escaped the Spanish Inquisition seeking  religious  freedom in Holland) and his financial partner, a Dutch woman of great stature.  The name of the book is The Devils Cup . It reads like a cross between a Hunter Thompson Gonzo monolog and a John Steinbeck travelog . A thoroughly enjoyable read. But I digress…     While in Amsterdam Ben received a dozen samples of various Ethiopian coffee samples to bring home for us roast up and taste.   This we did yesterday and the results were just wonderful . All the samples were from the Sidama Region . It is traditional in the coffee trade here in the USA to call the region “Sidamo” but I have been told by  knowledgeable  people that Sidamo means monkey and is considered a racist slur in Ethiopia. Regardless, the coffees were produced using the “washed” or “wet” method as opposed to the “dry” or “natural method”. I am partial to coffees produced via the wet method and Ben is partial to coffees produced using the dry method. The difference in taste each produces from the same coffee is profound and worth noting for your reference.     Dry or Natural coffees  are processed by allowing the cherry pulp to dry while still surrounding the coffee seeds within the cherry. This allows the fruity/fermenty flavors in the pulp to penetrate the seeds as they dry, imparting a sweet-sour flavor that reminds one of Blueberries and strawberries . When the whole cherry is totally dry, it is taken to a mill and “dehulled” to expose the coffee beans(seeds). The best “naturals” have so much personality you almost believe they have been altered with fruit syrups . Ethiopia and Yemen do the best jobs with naturals in my opinion. The blends we created for The California Academy of Science and for the Danville Chow Restaurant are based on Ethiopian naturals that ben discovered last year while  trekking  through the coffee regions of Ethiopia in search for a great Natural . I believe the one he found at the Hache Cooperative is one of Ethiopia’s best.

Coffee blossems have a fine aroma

Coffee blossems have a fine aroma

We purchased 37,500 lbs of it last year and we anticipate the coffee will be just as fruity in 2009.       I, however, prefer the wet processed ethiopian coffees. The pulp is removed from the seeds within hours of picking. The seeds are soaked water for 24-36 hours depending on water temperature, and then the seeds(beans) are set out to dry on cement patios to get down to a stable 11-12 % moisture .   Coffees processed this way  have a distinct citric brightness or acidity , showing hints of lemon and stone fruits like apricot and peach. They are bright and lively in the cup , which I prefer over the heavy and mellow mouthfeel of the naturals. But dont get me wrong, my preference is for washed coffees but a good natural is a wonder to behold.  We are now at 601 words. Enough!  You all are in for some great Ethiopian washed coffees this year in addition to  the great naturals we found last year. We will keep you posted as to their arrival date and availability


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